Arne Naess – Deep Ecology

Deep ecology

Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers man an integral part of his environment. Deep Ecology places more value on non-human species, ecosystems and processes in nature than established environmental and green movements. Deep Ecology has led to a new system of environmental ethics. Its core principle as originally developed is that of Næs’s doctrine of biospheric egalitarianism — the assertion that all living things have the same right to live and flourish. Deep Ecology describes itself as “deep” because it deals with fundamental philosophical questions about the role of human life as a part of the ecosphere, rather than with a narrow view of ecology as a branch of biological science, and strives for purely utilitarian environmentalism.

Arne Naess

Ecophilosophy And Ecology

Arne Næss, the founder of Deep Ecology and one of Norway’s best-known philosophers, is professor emeritus at the University of Oslo and has been working for SUM since 1991. Born in 1912 in Oslo, graduated from the University of Oslo in 1933, studied in Paris and Vienna. Doctorate in 1936 (thesis title: Erkenntnis und wissenschaftliches Verhalten), professor of philosophy at the University of Oslo from 1939 to 1969, then freelance philosopher and naturalist, and from 1970 environmentalist. Arne Næss has lectured in Bali, Beijing, Berkeley, Bucharest, Canton, Chengdu, Devon, Dubrovnik, Hangzhou, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Japan, Jerusalem, London, Melbourne, Reykjavik, Santa Cruz, Taiwan, Tartu (Estonia), Tromsø, Vancouver, Warsaw. Næss participated in the peace movement (especially 1940-55) and “the deep ecology movement” (1970-). He was leader of UNESCO’s project on the East/West controversy (Cold War), Paris 1948-49. In Europe, Næss is a supporter of “green” politics. Founded Inquiry, an interdisciplinary journal of philosophy.
More and contact information: University of Oslo

Joanna Macy

Activism, Buddhism and Deep Ecology

Joanna Macy is a scholar in the field of deep ecology and Buddhism. a constant voice through the years of activism, from the Nuclear Guardianship Program to her recent work on the much-needed changes of our society, or as she calls it a subsistence civilization.Her programs have inspired many activists over the years and support many in their courage to stand where many turned away.Just by reading her work, the immense possibilities of conscious life open up to you.
more information: Joanna Macy’s webiste

John Seed

A ‘council of all beings’, and ‘Thinking like a Mountain’

John Seed is founder and director of the Rainforest Information Centre in Australia.Since 1979 he has been involved in the direct actions and projects that have led to the protection of the Australian, Asian and St American rainforests and their inhabitants.He has written and lectured extensively on deep ecology and has been leading Councils of All Beings and other workshops on re-earthing around the world for 20 years.Together with Joanna Macy, Pat Fleming and Arne Naess he wrote “Thinking Like a Mountain – Towards a Council of All Beings” (New Society Publishers).

more information: John Seed’s website at